Tonsillitis is a common disease of childhood and adolescence. The diagnosis of tonsillitis generally requires the consideration of Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) infection. However, numerous other bacteria alone or in combinations, viruses and other infections and non-infectious causes should be considered. Recognition of the cause and choice of appropriate therapy are of utmost importance in assuring rapid recovery and preventing complications.

Penicillin is currently the first-choice treatment for GABHS pharyngotonsillitis. However, the growing failure of penicillin to eradicate GABHS is of concern. This website discusses the potential causes of penicillin failure ( i.e. the presence of beta-lactamse producing bacteria that can “protect” GABHS from penicillins) and methods to overcome them. It also discusses the role of anaerobic bacteria in tonsillitis and its complications.

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in retropharyngeal abs

Because of a recent increase in retropharyngeal abscess cases due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), a retrospective evaluation of the microbiology, clinical manifestations and treatment outcome of  retropharyngeal abscess  over the past 6-years (2004-2010) was performed at Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan. The Findings were compared to those of a previous 11 year study (1993-2003) period.
One hundred eleven children with retropharyngeal abscess were treated representing a 2.8 fold increase in incidence (per 10,000 admissions) over the previous 11-year period. A total of 116 isolates (93 aerobes, 23 anaerobes) were isolated from 66 drained specimens (2/3 of the total). The study showed increased frequency of isolation of MRSA with an associated increase of S. aureus mainly CA-MRSA. S. aureus was recovered from 25 (38%) of 66 specimens compared to 2 (4.9%) of 41 in the previous 11 years; 16 (64%) of 25 were MRSA compared to none in the previous 11 years. Children whose abscess grew MRSA were younger (mean 11 months) than the others (mean 62 month) (p< 0.001). Five children had mediastinitis; all caused by MRSA. All MRSA isolates were susceptible to clindamycin.This is likely due to the overall increase in CA-MRSA infections in pediatric patients. Treatment with ceftriaxone and clindamycin in addition to surgical drainage was effective in most patients.